Cessna C172 Skyhawk – General Aviation Defined

Cessna C172P seen at Brno, Czech Republic in 2021.

Power in Numbers

When the prototype Cessna C172 flew for the first time in 1955, its designers likely did not suspect that their creation would go on to become a watershed event in aviation history. More than six decades on, The Cessna C172 is indisputably the most produced aircraft in history and has likely been used to train more pilots than any other type.

Over 45,000 examples of the Cessna C172 have been built in over 30 variations and the type is still very much in production as of 2021. In fact, with the exception of a ten year period between the mid 1980s and mid 1990s, Cessna C172 production has gone on largely uninterrupted.

The C172 has done for post Second World War general aviation what the DeHavilland DH.60 Moth series of aircraft did for general aviation in the interwar period; brought aviation to the general public to such a degree that it ingrained itself in popular culture. The C172 is the definitive light aircraft for most casual observers; many people will look to a light, single engine aircraft passing overhead and simply call it a “Cessna” even if it’s not a Cessna aircraft at all.

In spite of many attempts to replace it with more modern aircraft, some of those attempts by Cessna themselves, the C172 has held its place as the definitive general aviation aircraft through the latter half of the 20th century and well into the 21st.

The C172 is not only the definitive symbol of general aviation for a majority of people worldwide, it’s also the definitive symbol of Cessna for just as many people.

It takes a special kind of aircraft to have the staying power that the C172 possesses. Let’s spend some time with this legend:

Cessna C172P seen at Brno, Czech Republic in 2021.

Born of a Boom

Following both world wars, the world saw booms in public interest in aviation.

Clyde Cessna (1879-1954) , together with with Walter Beech and Lloyd Stearman founded the Travel Air company in 1925 in Wichita, Kanasas, USA.

The three men eventually went on to create their own aircraft companies, Cessna doing so in 1927, and became legendary names in the early years of general aviation. All three stayed in Wichita and the city became hallowed ground in aviation circles over the years that followed.

The original Cessna aircraft company did not survive the Great Depression; Clyde Cessna closed the doors of the company in 1932 and sold it to his nephews in 1934. Under the ownership of his nephews, the company supplied many aircraft to U.S. and Allied forces during the Second World War and was set to flourish after the conflict ended.

When the post Second World War general aviation boom came, Cessna hit the ground running with the models 120 and 140 which debuted in 1946. The types were revolutionary in that their fuselages were fully metal construction rather than fabric over steel tube frame structures.

In 1948, Cessna followed up the success of the 120 and 140 with the model 170. The model 170 was essentially an enlargement of the 140 that had seats for four people. The model 170 was a very popular aircraft and more than 5,000 were built between 1948 and 1956.

The C172 was born from experiments to improve the model 170. The primary improvements were redesigned and refined flight surfaces along with a tricycle landing gear arrangement that saw the model 170’s tailwheel replaced with a nose wheel.

The C172 took to the air for the first time in 1955. With a strong pedigree behind it, the aircraft was a success from the start.

Well before the C172 was a thought in a designer’s mind, Cessna was already established as one of the “Big Three” American general aviation manufacturers, along with Beechcraft and Piper Aircraft. The C172 would cement Cessna’s position as a top producer of light aircraft worldwide.

Though the post World War Two general aviation boom ended and general aviation has seen its share of ups and downs in the decades between then and now, models of the C172 have remained the backbone of flying clubs and flight schools worldwide since the type was introduced in the 1950s.

Cessna C172M seen at Brno, Czech Republic in 2021.

Enigmatic Longevity

The C172, for all its staying power and ubiquity, is a rather unremarkable machine at heart. The design is not adventurous, exciting or pioneering in any way.

The C172 does not generate excitement among aircraft spotters, nor does it possess any idiosyncracies or other quirks of character that make seasoned pilots regale you with stories about flying it.

So, what does this unassuming legend have going in its favour that has kept it in demand as a flying machine for so long?

If an aircraft can be personified, the C172 is an honest machine that knows what it was built for and doesn’t pretend to be anything else. It doesn’t brag or show off, it just gets into the air over and over again and does its job without fanfare and does it well.

What the C172 lacks in flash or style, it more than makes up for in reliability, predictability and pilot friendliness. Perhaps in those qualities, we find the secret to its success.

Cessna got the C172 design formula right before it flew for the first time. The Cessna 170 that went before it was a reliable and well liked flying machine and the C172 was the logical follow on. The 170 was a formula that worked and the C172 was that formula taken to its apex.

One aspect of the C172 design that sets it apart from its most direct competing designs over the years, like the Beechcraft Musketeer and Piper Cherokee aircraft families of similar vintage to the C172 and more recent designs like the Diamond DA40 and Cirrus SR20, is the high set wing of the Cessna design.

The nearly unlimited downward view provided by the C172’s high mounted wing.

While all of the most directly competing designs have had low set wings, the high set wing of the C172 has worked to its advantage as both a training aircraft and a flying machine in general by offering a nearly unrestricted view downwards around the aircraft.

For the novice pilot, that downward view gives a reassuring look at the ground when coming in for a landing where a low set wing creates blind spots.

From a standpoint of simply flying, the C172 gives the pilot and passengers vistas to take in comforatbly that a low set wing is an obstacle to. This makes the C172 a pleasant touring aircraft as well as an ideal aircraft to give groups of two or three people sightseeing flights in.

The high wing also makes the C172 useful for aerial observation and police work. It has been used by a number of air arms and police forces around the world for observation duties.

Another quality that keeps the C172 going is that it is a very adaptable aircraft. Over the years, the aircraft has been fitted with a range of engine types and been adapted to run on a variety of fuels. It has been adapted to both float and ski landing gear as well as a short take off and landing (STOL) kit.

A C172S at Prague, Czech Republic in 2016.

A Flock of Skyhawks

Over the years, the C172 has been built in no fewer than 30 versions. For the most part, the differences between the versions have been quite small and primarily internal.

Aside of the main American made versions, the C172 was built by Reims Aviation in France to satisfy European demand for the aircraft. Reims produced the C172 from 1963 to the 1990s.

As it does take an expert eye and getting up close to tell many members of the C172 family apart, I present this list of family variants around versions of the aircraft that represented significant change and development in the aircraft family.

C172

This was the basic model which debuted in 1955. It was powered by a 145 horsepower engine made by Continental. It’s easily distinguished by other members of the family by its unswept vertical tail fin.

C172A and B

Introduced in 1960, the C172A brought the swept vertical tail fin into the aircraft family.

The C172B, also introduced in 1960, was the first version of the family the bear the name “Skyhawk”. The name was used to set a deluxe variant apart from the basic C172B for marketing purposes.

C172D and Reims F172D

Debuting in 1963, the C172D featured a redesigned rear fusealge in order to fit rear windows and give a better all around view outward from the aircraft cabin. The C172D also featured a one piece windshield to give the pilot a better view forward.

The Reims F172D was the first C172 model built by Reims Aviation. Production of the F172D began in 1963.

C172F, Reims F172F and T-41A Mescalero

Entering production in both America and France in 1965, the C172F was significant in that the wing flaps were electrically driven rather than manually operated. This feature enabled pilots with less upper body strength to operate the flaps of this version of the aircraft more comfortably than in previous ones.

In the mid 1960s, the U.S. Air Force chose the C172F as their new basic training aircraft. In USAF service, it was known as the T-41A Mescalero.

Reims FR172 Rocket, Cessna R172 and T-41B/C/D Mescalero

Debuting at the Paris Air Show of 1967, the Reims FR172 was a variant of the aircraft fitted with a 210 horsepower Rolls-Royce built Continental engine. The Reims Rocket was attractive as it brought higher performance without significantly higher fuel consumption. Reims had intended it primarily for the European civil market, but it caught the eyes of a number of military air arms and found itself in uniform before long.

Cessna themselves produced a version known as the R172. It was from the R172 that upgraded versions of the militarized T-41 were derived. The T-41B was built for the U.S. Army while the T-41C was taken by the U.S. Air Force as a replacement for the T-41A fleet. The T-41D was a downgraded version intended for export.

C172H

First appearing in 1967, the C172H was the last version of the family to be powered by a Continental engine. The H version brought design changes to the nose landing gear to reduce drag. The were aslo changes made to the engine cowling design and associated structures to reduce engine noise in the cabin and reduce stress fractures of cowling components.

C172I

Significant in being the first member of the family to be driven by a Lycoming engine, the I model debuted in 1968. The new engine generated 150 horsepower and brought modest improvements to performance. The I model also brought with it signifiant changes to the layout of flight instruments.

C172L

Introduced in 1971, the L model had completely new main landing gear leg design to replace the flat, spring steel type seen in earlier versions. The new landing gear was made of tube steel and covered in aerodynamic fairings; it was lighter than the old landing gear and wider.

C172M

The M version was introduced in 1973 and was known as the “Skyhawk II” in its deluxe option form. Most of the changes that created the M version were internal and associated with avionics upgrades. Structurally, the M featured a redesigned wing leading edge to give it better handling at lower speeds. It also featured an enlarged baggage compartment

A C172N (foreground) with a C172RG at Prague, Czech Republic in 2014.

C172N

The N model first appeared in 1977 and featured improvements to the wing flaps and electrical system.

The N model did not stay in production for very long due to the 160 horsepower engine it was fitted with being temperamental.

C172RG

Entering production in 1980, the RG model is the member of the family with retractable landing gear.

The RG did not experience the popularity of some other models in the family due to the fact that the retractable landing gear brought increased technical complexity and higher operating costs, but not a big enough improvement in speed to offset them.

C172P

The P first appreared in 1981. It featured landing lights moved from the nose to the wings and impovements to soundproofing in the cabin.

The P was the last 172 version built before a self-impossed decade long suspension on C172 production was put in place by Cessna in 1986. The suspension was a reaction to product liability laws in the United States at the time which were holding Cessna responsible for some of their long out of production 172 models and driving the prices of their newer C172 models unreasonably high.

C172R

First appearing in 1996, the R model marked the return of C172 production after reforms to US liability laws made it possible to manufacture and sell the C172 at reasonable prices again.

The R model was fitted with a 160 horsepower engine and was the first member of the aircraft family to come with fuel injection. This model also featured many refinements to the cabin related to soundproofing, ventilation and ergonomics.

C172S

In production since 1998, the S model is driven by a 180 horsepower engine and has a number of internal refinements associated with ergonomics and avionics.

A C172RG at Prague, Czech Republic 2014.

For the Record

Beyond holding the record as the most produced aircraft in history and very likely the aircraft type more pilots have learned to fly in than any other, the C172 can lay claim to a couple of other history making feats:

Between December 4 of 1958 and February 7 of 1959, a specially modified C172 was used to set a flight endurance record for single engine aircraft that still stands today: 64 days, 22 hours and 19 minutes.

Manned by two pilots, the aircraft lifted off from MacCarran Field in Las Vegas, USA and flew repeated circuits over the American southwest.

The aircraft was fitted with an extra fuel tank on its belly and the cabin was specially modified for the record setting flight. The aircraft was refuelled by flying it along a straight stretch of road with a fuel truck keeping pace underneath. A special winch in the aircraft cabin was used to bring the fuel hose up to the aircraft. That same winch was also used to bring other supplies up to the aircraft during the journey.

The flight was primarily a publicity event for the Hacienda casino, but was given more credibility by connecting it to a cancer research organization.

The aircraft used on the flight was restored several years later and is currently on display in the baggage claim hall of the MacCarran International Airport in Las Vegas.

No discussion about the C172 and its place in history could be complete without touching on the May 1987 flight by German pilot, Mathias Rust. Rust, who was only 19 and a very inexperienced pilot at the time, flew a C172P deep into Soviet airspace and landed it near Red Square in Moscow.

The incident is regarded by many Cold War experts as the catalyst which gave Mikhail Gorbachev, then the relatively new leader of the former Soviet Union, the leverage he needed for dismissing many key military leaders who were powerful opponents of his proposed Glasnost and Perestroika reforms.

That a western aircraft could not only be allowed to fly unopposed so deeply into Soviet territory, but also land in the middle of the capital city was a permanent blow to the credibility of the Soviet military in the eyes of the populace. Gorbachev seized the opportunity to remove his opponents from power and the beginning of the end of the Cold War began in earnest.

The aircraft Mathias Rust used, registration D-ECJB, is preserved in the German Museum of Technology in Berlin.

A C172N at Brno, Czech Republic in 2012

Further Reading and Learning More

The Cessna 172 is one of those aircraft that seems almost assured to be still flying in significant numbers and earning its keep in practical ways when its design reaches the century mark.

Still in production and very much the backbone of many flying clubs and flight schools worldwide, your chances of seeing a C172 are very high indeed in most places around the world. Your chances of taking a flight in one for sightseeing or as a student pilot are also quite good for the forseeable future.

Neither a glamorous nor exciting aircraft, the Cessna 172 is still a machine with a place of importance in aviation history that can’t be overstated.

The next time you see a Cessna 172 passing overhead or doing circuits at your local airport and are tempted to not give it a second look, consider that the pilot and copilot of the last airliner you boarded to go on holiday probably got their first taste of flight in a C172. When you talk to a military pilot at an airshow, there’s a good chance that a C172 was an essential stepping stone on their way to that supersonic fighter or monsterous transport they’re at the controls of now.

If you’d like to do more detailed reading about the C172, there’s some good resources both online and in print. As the C172 is still in production, a good start would be the C172 page at Cessna’s official website.

Three quite good articles that cover the C172 in both historical and contemporary contexts can be found at the Plane and Pilot magazine website, the Flying magazine website and the Desciples of Flight website.

Another good website to visit is the Cessna Flyer Association website. Among the good reading there is an article about Cessna aircraft built by Reims Aviation in France as well as an article about the T-41 Mescalero and how it differs from civilian C172 models.

This article goes into good detail about the 1958 endurance flight while this talks about the 1987 flight of Mathias Rust.

In print, a good general interest book is Cessna 172-A Pocket History which was published in 2010. At 128 pages, it doesn’t go deep. However, it provides a satisfying overview of the aircraft’s history and contains many photographs to illustrate the key differences between the various C172 models.

An Easter Glide

Today, I took an afternoon walk to Brno’s Medlánky airport and had the pleasure of seeing a bit of vintage glider action.

The Medlánky Aeroklub had their Scheibe Bergfalke III glider out and did a number of winch launches, something a bit different from the usual tow plane launching.

The Bergfalke is a German design that first flew in 1951, the Bergfalke III variation was introduced in 1962.

Here’s some of today’s action:

Happy Birthday, Blaník!

A Legend Flies On!

March 22 of 2021 marks the 65th anniversary of the first flight of the Let L-13 Blaník glider, one of the most successful of post World War Two glider designs and one of the most successful of Czech aircraft.

Unique among gliders for its all metal structure, the Blaník has a reputation for toughness and durability that few other gliders can match. Such qualities made it very popular as a training aircraft for many years as it could survive novice mistakes like hard landings without needing extensive repair work before it could go back into the air again.

The Blaník has enjoyed wide popularity at home and abroad and has been exported to more than 40 countries.

Here’s a few pictures I took of a Let-13AC Blaník in action at Brno’s Medlánky airport recently:

Spring Walkabout with New Scenery

Changing Things up a Bit

No, don’t worry, no big changes are coming to my “Pickled Wings” or “Beyond Prague” websites.

In January of 2021, we moved to a new flat in a different part of Brno. We’re still settling in in many ways, but a different view out the window and new areas to explore give some small relief to the monotony of the ongoing COVID lockdown measures.

The area we’ve moved into is a district called Královo Pole. it’s in the north part of the city and next to another district called Medlánky. I’ve discovered that Medlánky is not difficult to walk to from our new flat and I’ve made a couple of treks out there already.

Medlánky is known for open spaces, hills and the small glider airport out there. I’m definitely looking forward to taking walks out there in all seasons.

Here’s some pictures I’ve taken during a couple of walks out there. I’m happy to share them with you and hope they give you some pleasure and a bit of a mental holiday from the lockdown wherever you may be while experiencing it:

Book Review – Green Leader

Green Leader: Operation Gatling, the Rhodesian Miltary’s Response to the Viscount Tragedy

By: Ian Pringle

The Rhodesian Bush War, which lasted from July of 1964 to December of 1979, was a pivotal event in the establishment of today’s independent state of Zimbabwe in Africa.

Like many of the conflicts that took place in Africa during the latter part of the 20th century, key factors that touched off the Rhodesian Bush War included: racial tensions, the desire for independence from colonial rule and arguments over what political ideologies the newly emergent self-governing nations should embrace. In addition to the internal factors, there was also external interests shown by the both the eastern and western sides of the Cold War in influencing the various sides in the conflict.

The Rhodesian Bush War was a drawn out affair with many complexities for which volumes could be written. The chapter of the conflict that this book highlights was known as Operation Gatling, a three stage retaliatory strike campaign against insurgent bases in Zambia carried out by the Rhodesian air force and army that took place in late October of 1978.

The catlyst for Operation Gatling was the shooting down of a Vickers Viscount airliner operated by Air Rhodesia in early September of 1978 by insurgent forces of the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA). The insurgents used a Russian supplied surface to air missile to shoot down the airliner. Of the over 50 people on board the airliner, 18 survived the crash, Ten of those survivors were brutally gunned down by the ZIPRA insurgents shortly after the crash.

The attack sparked outrage amongst most Rhodesian citizens regardless of race and retaliatory action was demanded.

This book tells the story of that retaliation.

Getting into the Book

I know very little about the the Rhodesian Bush War, or most other African colonial confilcts for that matter, so I wasn’t sure what to expect of the book. However, it had an airplane on the cover and was well reviewed, so I decided to give it a read. I’m quite glad I gave it the chance.

The book starts off a bit slow, painting something of a picture of what life was like in Rhodesia at the time and giving some background to the key players and the reasons behind Operation Gatling.

Once the background information is out of the way, the book moves forth at a good pace and stays engaging throughout. The writing style is easy to follow and not bogged down with any unexplained jargon.

The heart of the story is the men and machines of the Rhodesian air force. To carry out the strikes, the Rhodesian air force had a handful of obsolete English Electric Canberra bombers and Hawker Hunter fighters of British origins along with a small fleet of Cessna 337 aircraft locally modified for close air support and a fleet of French made Alouette helicopters in both troop transport and gunship variations. All of this was controlled from modified Douglas DC-3 Dakotas acting as airborne command posts.

Lacking in manpower and in modern equipment, the Rhodesian military overcame logistical hurdles that a more modern equiped force would have problems dealing with to stage a series of daring counter strikes against ZIPRA bases in neighbouring Zambia.

The book takes its title from the “Green Leader” pseudonym used by Canberra pilot, Squadron Leader Christopher Dixon (1943-2011) used to identify himself to air traffic controllers at the airport in Lusaka, Zambia. As his bomber formation approached the area of Lusaka he transmitted a message to them that all Zambian air force aircraft were to remain on the ground, or risk being shot down, while Rhodesian military aircraft were operating in the area.

The message was broadcast on radio and television in Rhodesia and became part of the national conscience. Dixon was considered a hero and many Rhodesians refered to Operation Gatling as the “Green Leader Raids”.

Beyond the retaliatory strikes, the book also covers the political goings on in Rhodesia and the major players on all sides of the conflict at the time.

It all makes for a very enjoyable, informative and absorbing read on a chapter of a conflict not widely known about outside of the region it was fought in or well known by those who were not directly involved in it.

About the Author

Ian Pringle is well versed in both aviation and the Rhodesian Bush War. Being a veteran of the conflict, witness to the transition of Rhodesia to Zimbabwe and a pilot; Mr. Pringle is definitely a very qualified voice to speak on this subject.

You can find more information on the book on the publisher’s website and the author’s website.

Movements at Kunovice

Yakovlev Yak-40 “0260” at Ostrava, Czech Republic in 2019

Yaketty-Yak

In September of 2020, the Czech air force retired its Russian made Yakovlev Yak-40 jets from service.

One of the retired jets, “0260” was taken into the collection of the Brno Technical Museum. Through a cooperative arrangement, the aircraft was placed on loan to the Kunovice Air Museum. It made its last flight in October of 2020, landing at the Kunovice airport and being placed in storage awaiting display in the museum.

On Saturday, February 13, the aircraft was moved into the museum’s public display area and was given a place near the museum’s Tupolev Tu-154, “Nagano Express”.

In 1981, the Ministry of the Interior of the former Czechoslovakia transfered two Yak-40s to the air force. The aircraft operated primarily in the VIP transport role. Both were retired in September of 2020.

This article, published at the time the Czech air force Yak-40s were decommissioned, will give you a bit of background into the Yak-40 in Czechoslovak and later Czech service.


RAF House – Ivančice, Czech Republic

The Spitfire wall mural and table that is the heart of the lounge section of RAF House.

Remembrance and Refreshment

The bravery and sacrifice of the many Czechoslovaks who, at great personal risk, left their homeland to bolster the Allied ranks against Axis forces in the Second Word War is a point of pride for many Czechs and Slovaks today.

Without a doubt, the story of the airmen who travelled to Great Britain to fly with the Royal Air Force is the best known of the Czechoslovak contributions to the Allied cause in the conflict. A number of museums across the country have exhibits on those airmen and there is the winged lion monument in the Klárov district of Prague that is dedicated to them.

If you travel to the second biggest city in the country, Brno, you can visit the Air Café in the centre of the city and enjoy drinks and food while immersing yourself in the ambience that comes with being surrounded by a small museum’s worth of Second World War artefacts and paraphernalia dedicated to the Czechoslovak pilots.

The front facade of RAF House.

Approximately 30 kilometers south-west of Brno, you’ll find the small city of Ivančice. It’s a decidedly non-touristy place and its main claim to fame beyond Czech Borders is as the birthplace of famed Art Nouveau painter, Alfons Mucha (1860-1939). However, it is also home to a combination museum and restaurant called RAF House that’s very much worth the trip there to visit.

Located in a brick building near the edge of the city, RAF House has the look of a building that could have come directly from a WWII era RAF flying station if it were not for the prominent metal letters spelling “RAF” on the facade echoing the riveted construction of aircraft of the era.

The main corridor, looking towards the entrance end. The museum and lounge are on the left while the restaurant and wine bar are on the right.

First Impressions

I first learned of the existence of RAF house in early 2020 when someone posted some pictures of a very unique looking restaurant with an aviation theme on one of the online forums I frequent. They gave no information for where it was, so I did a bit of internet searching based on one of the photos and quickly found it was not only in the Czech Republic but was an easy trip from where I live in Brno. In that moment, I knew I had to visit. In June of 2020, that visit was made.

Walking up to the main entrance of the solid brick building and taking in the aforementioned metal “RAF” letters on the facade as well as the placards near the entrance that are filled with names of the Czechoslovaks who served in the RAF during WWII, it’s quite clear that a good deal of thought and passion was put into this place.

A view into the museum’s display case.

Once inside, I found myself in a corridor with a rustic looking restaurant section to the left and an aviation museum and lounge to the right. The museum is named after General Emil Boček (1923-), a resident of Brno and the last known surviving of the Czechoslovak airmen who flew in the RAF.

The museum consists of display cases full of photos, flying gear and instruments, uniforms, personal effects and much more connected to the RAF Czechoslovak airmen.

The focal point of the lounge is a wall mural of a Spitfire fighter in the markings of 310 Squadron, one of the Czechoslovak RAF squadrons. The wing of the Spitfire extends from the wall and forms a very unique dining table. The chairs that surround the table are modelled on a Spitfire seat.

A look around the lounge.

The lounge also features a leather sofa and chair set that surround a coffee table that uses a radial aircraft engine for a base. There are also some pub type tables around and some evocative black and white period photographs on the walls.

When one looks across to the restaurant section, it becomes clear that wine is as much a passion as aviation at RAF House. This part of the establishment has a wine bar at the heart of it and is clearly set up to host wine tasting events as well as being a restaurant

The wine connection is no surprize as two of the restaurant’s three founders are wine makers and use the restaurant as a prime point of sale for their RAF brand wine. The labelling on their wine bottles is on a clear aviation theme, and the “RAF” in their wine brand comes from their surnames, Rajníc and Fischer, as well as Royal Air Force.

There is also an events hall in the building that can be rented for special occaisions.

English style fish and chips with a mug of Czech draft. A delightful combination!

Enough Banter, Let’s Eat!

Like many Czech restaurants, RAF house provides a daily lunch menu in addition to their standing menu.

The standing menu is presented on a set of cards that fan out from a central hinge point and has both Czech and English languages on it. The menu is comprised of hearty traditional dishes as well as some house specialities. A selection of the aforementioned wine as well as good quality Czech draft beer or Guinness are also on the menu to wash the food down with. There is also a respectable selection of spirits on offer as well. On the back of each card in the menu is a WWII era photo related to the Czechoslovak airmen.

Pictures on the back of the menu cards.

I chose the fish and chips as my main course with a large draft Pilsner to accompany it. I followed it up with the house special RAF chocolate cake and coffee. Everything was delicious and the English style fish and chips seemed the appropriate meal to eat given that the famous white cliffs of Dover make up the background of the Spitfire wall mural.

I enjoyed my meal on the Spitfire wing table and I must say that it lent a very evocative feel and ambience to my dining experience.

The service, as well as the food, was excellent. Both servers who attended to me on my visit spoke English to a respectable standard.

A suggested walking route from the Ivančice bus station to RAF house.

Paying a Visit

If you are travelling to Ivančice from Brno, the trip can be made by car in around 30 minutes. There is also bus and train service between the cities that takes about an hour or so. If you travel by bus or train, you will need to transfer at least once on the way.

As RAF House is on the edge of town, the bus and train stations in Ivančice are not particularly close to it. However, it is a fairly straightforward walk to the restaurant from either station. Walking from the bus station, which is near the main square of the town, I was able to reach RAF House on foot in about half an hour. It wasn’t a demanding walk as it was mostly on flat ground with pedestrian paving all along the way. As long as the weather is good, this could be a nice way for you to build your appetite enroute to the restaurant.

WWII era RAF flying helmet, mask and goggles

With the close proximity of Brno to Ivančice, it is possible to find taxi service between the two. However, Czech taxis have a reputation for being very expensive and I would not recommend that option unless you speak Czech proficiently or are travelling with a Czech native who can act as an intermediary between you and the taxi company and driver.

I noted there was a local public transportation stop near the restaurant, but a quick look at the schedule showed that the bus runs only once an hour, so may not be the best option for getting there.

Learning More

These two links will take you to the RAF House and RAF Wines websites. While both are completely in Czech, they do respond reasonably well to online translator functions.

On the Learning Curve and Freshening Up

In the Hangar and in the Trainer

This is just a small update to let you know about some goings on behind the scenes at Pickled Wings.

In the process of updating existing articles, I’ve learned that the new block editor that WordPress has put in place will take more learning yet and the “Classic” editor they claim to have retained for those of us who prefer it does not work quite as it used to. Notably, I find the image insertion process does not operate quite as it did so I have ended up replacing all of the images in updated articles where I only intended to add one or two new ones. That is because the thumbnail sizing in the new editor is not consistent with the sizing of the previous editor.

At any rate, the learning continues with every new article written and existing one updated. There are certainly bugs for WordPress to get out of the new editor and I hope they will do so.

I’ve updated the following articles:

In the 1940-1949 section, the Aero Ae-45 and Ae-145 article has received all new photos.

In the 1950-1959 section, the article on the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 “Farmer” has received new photos and a slight text update.

In the 1960-1969 section, the Tupolev Tu-154 “Careless” article received new photos while the Zlín/Let Z-37 Čmelák article got new photos and an update to the links in it.

What you’ll likely notice first is that the updated articles have larger thumbnail images for the photos in them. They are a bit bigger than I’d like, but they don’t overpower the text and the next size down was too small for my tastes.

I won’t be announcing all updates to articles, but if you open an existing article and notice the photos in it are bigger that you’re used to at Pickled Wings, you’ll know an update has taken place.

Thanks for your continued readership.

Let L-410 Turbolet – Flying Flagship

IMG_0612
An L-410UVP Turbolet seen in flight in 2017 over Pardubice, Czech Republic.

Flying the Flag, Far and Wide 

The Czech Republic has a remarkably colourful history in aviation that dates to before the first Czechoslovak aircraft company, Letov, was founded in 1918. The small nation has given the world a wide range of capable aircraft in categories including aerobatics, agriculture, general aviation, gliders, trainers and transports among others.

As Czech aircraft manufacturers go, Let is a relatively young company. Founded in 1936 in the south eastern Czech town of Kunovice, Let started as a maintenance branch of the much older Avia company. It would not be until after the Second World War that Let would come into its own as a company after the Communist government that took over the former Czechoslovakia in 1948 nationalized the contry’s industries. It was at that point in time that Let was split from Avia and made into a separate company.

In April of 1969, the prototype of a new aircraft rose from the Kunovice runway into the air for the first time. Designated the XL-410, it was the beginning of a long lived family of transport aircraft that would grow to not only serve as the flagship product of the Let company for over five decades, but also a global symbol of Czech prowess in aircraft design: the L-410 Turbolet.

Upon first impressions, the L-410 Turbolet may seem nothing more than one of the many twin turboprop powered commuter aircraft types out there. Its unassuming appearances belie an aircraft of robust construction, remarkable flexibility, cost effectiveness and short take of and landing (STOL) performance that few aircraft in its class can match.

Still in production five decades after its first flight, used by air arms and civilian operators in over 70 countires across five continents and still going strong; the L-410 is without a doubt the most succesful of Czech aircraft.

Let’s spend some time with the L-410 Turbolet:

The first XL-410 prototype “Matylda” seen preserved at the Kunovice Air Museum. Kunovice, Czech Republic, 2020.

A Hard Act to Follow 

From the outset, the Turbolet was intended to be a very self-sufficient aircraft that could operate in extremes of temperature and from rough or completely improvised airstrips in very remote regions. These specifications were arrived at as one of the aircraft the L-410 was designed to replace was the venerable and legendary Antonov An-2.

The Antonov An-2 is in the history books as the largest single engine biplane ever put into production. Being a biplane first flown after World War Two, the An-2 was something of an anachronism when it was introduced. However, the aircraft had a very unique set of flying characteristics that would make the job of any aircraft intended to replace it a very high order indeed. The An-2 was an extremely self-sufficient aircraft noted for its tough-as-nails construction and STOL performance that has been next to impossible for any other fixed wing aircraft to match.

While the Turbolet certainly has never been able to equal the An-2’s STOL capabilities, in its STOL optimised form it does possess the performance to give it a place among a small handful of aircraft in its class that are capable of operating from the Tenzing-Hillary Airport in Lukla, Nepal.

Tenzing-Hillary has a long standing reputation as one of the most demanding and dangerous airports for any aircraft and pilot to operate from. This comes from the high altitude the airport is situated at, its short runway length and the unforgiving mountainous terrain that surrounds the airport. Any aircraft and pilot must hold special certifications to fly into and out of the airport. Along with the DeHavilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter and the Dornier Do-228 from Germany, the Turbolet is among those few aircraft in its class to be certified for operations from this airport.

The third prototype XL-410 “Zuzka” seen preserved at Kunovice, Czech Republic in 2020.

As with its nearest contemporary designs, the Turbolet is built relatively low to the ground with its wing set high on the fuselage. This configuration allows good access to critical areas of the aircraft for servicing while still allowing maintenance crews to stand on the ground or require nothing more advanced than a basic stepladder to do their jobs. The configuration also allows for easy loading of cargo or passenger boarding as no specialized airstairs or cargo lifting machinery are required to load the aircraft.

Certified to operate in temperatures that range from -50C (-58F) to 50C (122F), there are very few environments on Earth where the Turbolet would be unfit to work.

With a take off run of around 510 metres (1,673 feet) and a landing run of around 500 metres (1,640 feet) in its STOL optimised versions, there are very few places in the world the Turbolet could not get into or out of.

Early production Turbolet variants seen preserved at Kunovice, Czech Republic in 2020.

A Bit of East and a Bit of West

Studies for the aircraft that would become the L-410 started in the 1966-1967 timeframe. In the same period of time, the domestically designed Walter M601 engine that would eventually power the L-410 was under development.

From the outset, the aircraft was designed as a short haul machine that could carry between 12 and 19 passengers or 1850 kg (4079 pounds) or cargo into or out of a wide variety of airport and runway types. The aircraft was designed to operate from airstrips made of grass, sand, gravel, clay or snow at rudimentary airfields with equal ease as it would operate from a well prepared asphalt runway at a fully equiped airport.

The reason for designing this level of versatility into the aircraft was to ensure it had a chance of meeting specifications put forth by the former Soviet Union for a new aircraft requirement of the state airline, Aeroflot. The airline needed a modern, well built, durable and dependable aircraft to replace the older types they had to serve the communities on their more remote routes.

The former Soviet Union was the world’s largest nation, a distinction that contemporary Russia still holds today. Outside of the major cities, there are wide tracts of less developed areas with far flung communities that can only be reached with aircraft. Typically, these regions have climates that are harsh and unforgiving on man and machine alike. Needless to say, the bushflying art is alive and well in these remote corners of the world.

The turbolet met the specifications and many of the type were exported to the former Soviet Union and quickly gained popularity among those who worked with it. It still enjoys a good deal of popularity in Russia.

The Walter M601 engine, versions of which powered all but the earliest Turbolet variants.

While the former Czechoslovakia was solidly within the Socialist sphere of influence at the time the Turbolet was being developed, there was a western component to the prototypes and earliest production versions in the form of the Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6 engine.

The choice of the PT6 came about from the fact that the Walter M601 would not be ready for flight at the time the prototype Turbolets would be completed, so a substitiute engine was required to make sure the prototypes got airborne on schedule. The PT6 was a proven engine that was a close match for the sort of performance the M601 would provide later versions of the Turbolet.

Let also considered Garett engines from America and Turboméca engines from France before settling on the PT6.

An L-410MA, an example of the second production series, seen at Kunovice, Czech Republic in 2013.

Refining the Machine

From the first flight of the XL-410 in April of 1969, it was clear that the Turbolet would be a solid performer and worthy of further development. However, as it is with all machines, the prototype and production versions can differ quite a lot.

This is a general overview of the Turbolet family development across major production models:

XL-410

The prototypes of the Turbolet line were designated as XL-410. Three XL-410 prototypes were built, the first and third were flying prototypes while the second was used for stress testing.

L-410A

The first production series of the family was the L-410A. Like the prototypes, aircraft of this series were powered by the PT6 engine.

The L-410A line differed from the prototypes by having a completely redesigned main landing gear as well as structural reinforcements nose to tail. Other differences included a small stabilizing fin being added to the underside of the rear fuselage as well as changes to the propellers and aircraft de-icing system.

A total of 31 aircraft were made to L-410A standards. Significant among them was the L-410AS, a specialized version for the Soviet Union that proved the Turbolet’s excellent performance in climatic extremes and rudementary airport and airstrip conditions.

L-410M

The second production Turbolet series, the L-410M, debuted in 1973 and is the series that defined the Turbolet family on the world stage.

The L-410M was the first series of the family to be powered by the Walter M601 engine. Most of the development that took place between versions of the M model concerned the fitting of improved versions of the M601.

An L-410UVP seen operating on a grass airstrip in Prague, Czech Republic in 2016.

L-410UVP

An offshoot of the L-410M, the L-410UVP is different enough to be considered the third production series of the Turbolet family.

While all members of the aircraft family are capable of STOL performance, the UVP versions were optimised to bring those qualities of the aircraft to the fore.

The UVP versions had more powerful engines as well as increases to the wingspan and tail area. All of this was to meet a STOL specification set out by the Soviet Union. While the UVP met the specification, it turned out to be a machine of compromises.

The increases in wingspan and tail surface area translated into an increase in overall weight in the UVP versions and corresponding decreases in performance as far as payload, range and economy of operation were concerned.

Beyond the basic UVP version, this branch of the family includes:

L-410UVP-S: VIP transport version with an executive interior fitted.

L-410UVP-E: Improved version with more powerful engines, five bladed propellers and wing tip fuel tanks.

L-410T: A cargo optimised version with a larger cargo door.

L-410FG: A specialised version with a glass nose for aerial mapping and survey work.

The first L-410NG prototype seen at Kunovice, Czech Republic in 2018.

L-410NG

Debuting in in 2015, the L-410NG “New Generation” is at once a member of the Turbolet family and a substantial departure from what has gone before it in the lineage.

The NG was developed from the UVP-E and maintains the spacious passenger cabin the aircraft family is known for as well as the robust construction and mission flexibility.

Where the NG differs is in a redesigned wing that allows for more fuel to be carried and has resulted in a significantly increased range for the NG model. The NG also can carry more cargo in a lengthened nose and has a fully modern cockpit and avionics suite.

Additionally, the NG has more powerful engines from General Electric. In fact, the new engines are a development of the M601 and bear General Electric branding due to the Walter company becoming subsidiary to General Electric in 2008.

The L-410NG has been in series production since 2018.

A Czech air force L-410FG seen at Ostrava, Czech Republic in 2015.

Flexing to Function and Fun

As mentioned in previous sections of this article, the Turbolet was designed with a good amount of mission flexibility in it. This is thanks largely to its spacious cabin area.

Beyond standard passenger and cargo variations, the cabin can be fitted with air ambulance or emergency medical service interiors. It can also be fitted with an executive interior for VIP or corporate flying.

Along with the roomy cabin, the L-410 has the power and range to make it useful for aerial survey and mapping work as well as patrol and surveillance work. Special modifications for aerial mapping and photogrammetry created the L-410FG version with its distinctive glass nose.

The flexibility of the Turbolet was further tested in Russia in 2017 when experiments were carried out to test the type’s suitability for ski and float landing gear.

It’s not all work and no play for the Turbolet. The aircraft is very popular worldwide as a platform for skydiving. With a good climb rate and the roomy cabin, it lends itself very well to getting larger groups to jumping height efficiently.

If you’re a more intrepid holiday maker who looks for more exotic and remote locales to visit, you may very well find yourself on a Turbolet for at least part of your journey. As mentioned earlier, the Turbolet is one of the few aircraft types of its class that could get you to Nepal’s Tenzing-Hillary Airport.

A Czech air force L-410UVP seen at Náměšť nad Oslavou, Czech Republic in 2012.

Come aboard, It’s Perfectly Safe

In some quarters, the Turbolet has been branded an unsafe aircraft. However, this is quite unfair and borders on the ridiculous.

The fact that more than 1,200 examples of the Turbolet have been built over the years and it’s still in production more than five decades after it first flew is testament to the soundness of the design and the competence of its designers.

On the surface, it would seem the Turbolet is an accident prone machine. It’s been involved in over 100 accidents that have resulted in over 400 fatalities. However, before one judges the accident record of an aircraft like the Turbolet, one must keep in mind a few things about it:

A vast majority of accidents the Turbolet has been involved in were traced back to human error rather than any issues inherent to the design of the aircraft.

Very few aircraft can operate in places where the Turbolet can and many of those places are inherently risky to fly in even for the most rugged of aircraft and most seasoned of aircrew. Accidents are bound to happen in such places even under the most ideal of circumstances.

Turbolets are often operated in developing or underdeveloped nations where regulations are poorly if at all enforced. That in combination with many operators of the aircraft being small and remotely located has often lead to poor quality control in both ground maintenance and aircrew training.

An L-410UVP-E seen at Kunovice, Czech Republic in 2018.

The L-410 Today and Learning More

While some Turbolets have found their way into museums, the type is still very much an active flyer earning its keep in air arms and on civil registers worldwide. As such, your chances of seeing one in action aren’t particularly scarce.

Without a doubt, the best place to see the bulk of the Turbolet family line in one place is Kunovice, in the south east of the Czech Republic. Kunovice airport is home not only to the Let company, but also the Kunovice Air Museum. The museum dedicates most of its activities to preserving the aviation history of Kunovice. In the museum collection, you will find the first and third XL-410 prototypes as well as early production Turbolet models. A visit to Kunovice could also see you in a position to watch resident Turbolets operating at the airport.

Still in production more than fifty years after it was designed, the Turbolet shows no signs of slowing down any time soon.

This link will take you to a website with a wealth of information on all aspects of the Turbolet and its development. The site is in Czech, but responds well to online translator functions.

These links will take you to pages about the L-410UVP-E and L-410NG at the Let website.

Medlánky Oldtimers Weekend – 2020 Edition

September 5 and 6 of 2020 mark the annual Oldtimers Weekend at Medlánky airfield in Brno Czech Republic.

The weather was beautiful and there was a good selection of vintage sailplanes and general aviation aircraft on view.

With the COVID crisis of 2020, many famous airshows around the world have been cancelled, including a couple I regularly attend here in the Czech Republic. I’m very happy that the Medlánky Aeroklub didn’t cancel their Oldtimers Weekend this year. It’s likely to be the only airshow I get to see this year.

I’ll just let the pictures speak for themselves and show you the atmosphere of the day: