Book Review: “Tornado Over the Tigris”

Tornado Over the Tigris
By: Michael Napier
Pen and Sword Books (2015)

The Panavia Tornado needs little introduction, the product of a trinational consortium put together to create a multirole flying machine that would play a vital role in forming the backbone of NATO’s strike and reconnaissance needs in Europe through the 1980s and 1990s, the Tornado has carved out a respectable place for itself in aviation history.

“Tornado Over the Tigris” was written by Michael Napier as a retrospective to his 13 year fast jet flying career in the Royal Air Force. The bulk of his carreer was spent piloting the Tornado Gr.1 variant from RAF Bruggen in the former West Germany. This tale follows his RAF Career from his basic flight training in the late 1970s to his last Tornado flight and retirement from the RAF shortly after the end of the Cold War.

This book is a very accessible read which makes just enough reference to the technical aspects of flying and maintaining the Tornado to effectively bring across the complexities of the machine without getting bogged down in dry technobabble. It’s a volume that is as much about the people that worked around the machine as it is about the machine itself. It’s a quite human story told with a level of humility and wit that makes it engaging and gives it great charm.

Throughout the course of the book, Mr. Napier emphasises the critical importance trust and personal familiarity play in creating an effective military unit, how important good people skills are when working in a multinational team and how filled with risk the military fast jet crew’s lives are even in the most routine aspects of their duties once the aircraft is aloft. At the start of the book, he takes time to list the names of Tornado pilots and navigators he personally knew who did not survive their time in service, either through combat or accidents, and dedicates the book to them.

The book starts as the typical story of a young man who is captivated by military fast jets in his childhood and sets himself the goal of one day flying them himself. Through diligence at school and determination, he achieves that goal. In this section, he gives the reader a good picture of what life in flight training school was like and what the various aicraft he learned to fly on were like.

The core of the book starts when the Author graduates from training on the Tornado and is assigned to his first operational unit, 14 “Crusader” Squadron, at the RAF station at Bruggen near the Dutch/German border. Most of the story happens at Bruggen and in the skies of the former West Germany.

I would say the book really shines in this part as it gives the reader a view of a period of RAF activities that is now firmly in the past. Following the end of the Cold War and the reunification of Germany, RAF bases and assets in the country were gradually reduced through the 1990s. The last of the RAF’s permanent presence in Germany ended in the early 2000s. This part gives the reader a window into the realities that a NATO fast jet pilot stationed in West Germany, the de facto front line of the Cold War in Europe, lived with daily. The primary reality was that any alarm calling them to action there could very well be the real thing rather than a drill.

We get a break from Tornado action when the author is assigned to RAF Chivenor, a former RAF station in the south west of England, where he trained to become a qualified instructor pilot. In this section, we get a good look at the Hawk advanced jet trainer as well as the much more relaxed atmosphere to be found on a training base in the UK at the time versus RAF Bruggen.

From Chivenor, we are returned to Bruggen for the author’s second tour on the Tornado. This time he is assigned to 31 “Goldstars” squadron and gives us a good look at how different the internal atmospheres of different squadrons can be as well as the trials and tribulations of reaquainting himself with friends from his first Tornado tour, getting accepted by existing members of his new squadron as well as carrying an elevated level of experience and authority than he had on his first tour.

Along the way, Napier takes the reader along on various exercises such as weapons camps in Canada and Italy as well as multiple trips to the famous Red Flag exercise in America. These parts of the book show well the many challenges of working with other militaries towards a common goal.

Also detailed is a period the author spent based in the Middle East in the early 1990s as part of a detachment to control airspace in Iraq. In this section of the book the author brings across well the gravity he was hit with when, for the first time in his career, he saw live bombs mounted on his aircraft and knew he would be taking them into a real combat zone to drop “in anger”.

The author also uses his time in the Middle East to underline how important it is to have absolute trust and knowledge of the people you are working with in a military unit. As the Tornado is flown by a crew of two, the trust between the pilot and navigator is paramount. The difficulties the established roster of the detachment had in adjusting to the arrival of two new crews was very enlightening. While the new crews were certainly qualified on the Tornado, they were total strangers as people to the existing personnel and their integration into the unit was not without interpersonal friction.

The book concludes with a very descriptive detailing of the author’s final flight in a Tornado in which he flies the length of Great Britain at low altitude. It’s a quite satisfying end to the book.

This book is written with a minimum of ego and it’s clear how acutely aware the author is of how privileged he was to be able to achieve a dream that many have yet a rare few realise.

I can recommend this book to anyone who is a fan of the Tornado and would like a solid look at operations with it that goes light on the technical end of things, or for anyone who just likes a good military flying memoir.

This link will take you to the book’s page on the publisher’s website:


Museo del Aire – Madrid, Spain

Wings at Four Winds 

The helicopter collection in Hangar 4 of the museum.

Located just south of Madrid’s historic Cuatro Vientos (Four Winds) Airport, this is the official museum of the Spanish air force. Known officially as Museo de Aeronáutica y Astronáutica o Museo del Aire, the facility is typically referred to simply as Museo del Aire. I paid this museum a visit in mid April of 2018.

While the museum was established at its current location in 1981, the idea for it and development of it had been in slow progress since the end of the Spanish Civil War. The museum has existed, at least on paper, officially since 1966.

The Cuatro Vientos location, in the south-west suburbs of Madrid, could not have been a better choice as a place for the museum from a historical standpoint. Aviation activity has been going on in Spain since before the First World War; Cuatro Vientos and nearby Getafe Air Base are two of the oldest airports in the country, both having been formally established in 1911. The area truly is the cradle of Spanish aviation.

Museo del Aire is a sweeping collection of more than 150 aircraft in both indoor and outdoor displays spread across an area of almost 67,000 square metres. As European air museums go, this is a major one.

All eras of Spanish military and governmental aviation are well covered between the outdoor exhibits and the seven hangars holding the indoor exhibits. A good cross section of domestically designed and produced aircraft are on display alongside various foreign types which saw Spanish service.

At that, let’s take a look at Museo del Aire:

Outdoor Displays 

Prototype of the domestically developed CASA C-101 Aviojet trainer.

The sizable outdoor display area is the first part of the museum to greet visitors after they pass through the entry gate.

This part of the collection is organised into sections for  fighters, helicopters as well as transport and utility types.

It doesn’t take long after entering the museum for the diverse history of Spanish military aviation to become apparent. Spain saw many political changes through the 20th century and the various alliances the nation held through the century dictated where much of their military hardware came from at any given time.

Aside of domestically developed aircraft; visitors can also see aircraft of American, British, Canadian, French, German and Italian origins to name but a few. There are also a number of foreign aircraft types which were built under license by Spanish companies.

The Dassault Mirage III was a fighter type of French origins once used by the Spanish air force.

Among the aircraft you can see in the outdoor section in Spanish colours are the hulking Boeing KC-97 tanker aircraft, the domestically designed CASA C-207 transport, Canadair CL-215 firefighting aircraft, Dassault Mirage III and F.1 fighters as well as the distinctive Lockheed F-104 Starfighter.

The outdoor collection is not limited to aircraft which saw service in Spanish hands, a number of types in foreign colours are also on display. Among the fast jets, you can see Soviet designed Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17, 21 and 23 types as well as a Sukhoi Su-22 strike aircraft. There are also a couple of former Swedish air force types in the form a Saab 32 Lansen and a Saab 37 Viggen.

While, as one might expect, a number of the outdoor aircraft show one degree or another of exposure to the elements; a pleasing number of them have clearly been given fresh paint quite recently. It’s good to see such a clear sign of a museum taking care of their outdoor collection.

Indoor Displays 

The British designed Bristol F2B fighter on display in Hangar 1.

As mentioned earlier, the museum’s indoor exhibits are distributed among seven hangars. They are organised largely by theme rather than era. During my visit, not all the hangars were open.

Hangar 1 focuses on early aviation themes running from the pre WWI period to the Spanish Civil War. The hangar was partially closed during my visit, so I was only able to view the parts covering up to the First World War.

The exhibited aircraft I saw in Hangar 1 are well presented, but the dim lighting made photography a very challenging prospect.

Looking into Hangar 2.

Hangar 2 is dedicated to aeronautical technology themes such as airframe structures and engines through the years.

Here you’ll see not only engines ranging from very early piston types to modern turbofan types, you’ll also see flight simulators for a variety of aircraft types as well as examples of aircraft stripped to their bare frames to show internal structures.

Hangar 2 also has displays of unmanned drone aircraft, bombs and missiles as well as some items of space exploration.

As with Hangar 1, low lighting conditions make photography in Hangar 2 a similarly challenging task.

Some occupants of Hangar 3.

Hangar 3 focusses on light aircraft and training types through the years.

The diversity of aircraft that have been used by Spanish military aviation over the years is displayed particularly well here as there are American, British, Czech, German and Italian originated aircraft on display here to name a few.

Hangar 3 houses aircraft displaying markings of both sides of the Spanish Civil War as well as more modern Spanish air force markings.

Aside of powered aircraft, there is a selection of sailplanes hanging from from the ceiling of this hangar.

As with the first two hangars, photography is also something of a challenge here. Partly the challenge comes from artificial and natural light sources conflicting with each other and the aircraft being in very close quarters with each other so as to negate many pictures focussing on a specific aircraft.

Cierva C.12 autogyro in Hangar 4.

Hangar 4 is dedicated to rotary flight and displays a good selection of autogyros and helicopters.

Significant in this hangar are examples of Cierva autogyros. Created by Juan de la Cierva (1895-1936) in 1920, the autogyro was a truly Spanish contribution to aviation history.

More importantly to rotary aviation, Cierva also developed the articulated rotor. This was a critical moment in helicopter development as it enabled stable rotary flight.

For the invention of the autogyro and associated technologies, Cierva was awarded the 1932 Daniel Guggenheim Medal for aeronautics and the 1933 Elliot Cresson Medal for invention.

Aside of the aircraft in this hangar, there are several display cases lining the sides of it with more detailed information about Cierva and the autogyro.

One of a pair of DeHavilland Dragon Rapide aircraft in Hangar 5.

Hangar 5 is rather less focussed than the first four. Here, there is a range of military and civil aircraft covering interwar, early jet and sport flying categories.

Upon entering this hangar, one is greeted by a pair of DeHavilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide aircraft, one in British registration that Francisco Franco himself flew in and one in Nationalist markings of the Spanish Civil War.

The early jets include a North American F-86 Sabre fighter, a Lockheed T-33 trainer and two variants of the domestically developed Hispano Aviación HA-200 Saeta trainers.

Two North American T-6 Texan trainers and a small selection of civil sport aircraft can also be found in Hangar 5.

Unlike the first three hangars, photography is quite easy in Hangars 4 and 5.

At the time of my visit, Hangars 6 and 7 were closed. However, through information in a leaflet I received upon entry to the museum and some internet searching, it seems that Hangar 6 contains the museum’s Dornier Do 24 flying boat and a pair of Heinkel He-111 bombers while Hangar 7 contains a display of scale models.

Paying a Visit

HA-200 Saeta trainer in Hangar 5.

Museo del Aire’s size and scope are more than enough to justify a special trip to see it if you’re in the Madrid area and you’ll certainly see some unique subjects on display that you might not see otherwise. For example, less than 30 CASA C-207 Azor transport aircraft were made and only five are known to have escaped scrapping when the type was retired. Two of the world’s remaining Azors are here.

While I heartily recommend a visit to Museo del Aire, there are some things to be aware of before you go:

Despite its size and status as the official museum of the Spanish air force, Museo del Aire has some surprisingly limited hours. It pays to get there for opening time as they are open only from 10:00-14:00.

While it is not widely advertised, a number of websites I’ve visited indicate that the mueum is closed completely through the month of August.

The museum has a decently stocked gift shop. However, you may want to take a snack with you or eat a big breakfast before you go as the museum has no proper restaurant, only a small café with very limited options, and there are no larger dining establishments in the immediate vicinity of the museum. There is enough walking around at this museum to build an appetite.

Museo del Aire is something of a challenge to get to given the size of the attraction and its importance.

If you go by road, it will involve a trip along the A5 motorway. The A5 is a six lane road connecting Madrid to the Alcorcon and Mostoles suburbs. There is not much in the way of signage for the museum along the road and save for a small watertower with “Museo del Aire” painted on it, the museum is not visible from the road. The museum has some free parking available if you go by car.

Dassault Mirage F.1 fighter with the museum café in the background.

If you don’t have a car, the most common ways to get to the museum are by going to the Principe Pio train station and taking one of the green Intercity busses in the direction of Alcorcon and Mostoles, there’s four bus routes that run quite regularly along the A5 between the city and those suburbs.

If you go by bus and don’t speak Spanish, have “Museo del Aire” or “Escuela de Transmisiones” written on a piece of paper to show the driver where you want to go. The latter term is the name of the precise stop you want to get off at for the museum; based on my experience, it may be the better option to show the driver.

Once you get off the bus, there is a bridge over the A5 that you have to cross to get to the museum.

As an alternative to the bus, you can take the Madrid Metro train as far as Cuatro Vientos airport. Take the Line 10 in the direction of Puerta del Sur and get off at the Cuatro Vientos station.

The Metro option comes with the advantage that it lets you off on the museum side of the A5. However, getting to the museum itself will require a kilometre and a half or so of walking from the station.

Learning More 

Sikorsky H-19 in Hangar 4.

Unfortunately, it seems the museum doesn’t have much of a presence of its own on the internet. Most of the web addresses I have located that are supposed to take one to the museum’s website are no longer functional.

However, I was able to locate the following links to reports written about the museum by others who paid visits to it prior to my own.

Between these links, which both show aircraft in the museum collection that I did not have access to when I visited, and what I have written here; you can get a very good idea of what there is to see there:

This link will take you to Madrid’s multilingual tourism portal. Through the museums section of this site, you can find more detailed information about the museum’s hours of operation and so forth:

Letov LF-107 Luňák – “Engineless Fighter”

Of Proud Pedigree 

Luňák landing at Brno, Czech Republic in 2017.

Established in Prague by the Czechoslovak Defense Ministry in 1918 for the purpose of repairing aircraft of the fledgling Czechoslovak air force, Letov was the first Czech aircraft company.

The company is credited with the design and production of the first indigenous Czech military aircraft, the Š-1 surveillance biplane, which first flew in 1920.

The company performed very strongly in the interwar period, producing a number of aircraft models in a wide variety of categories, both civil and military. As with all Czechoslovak companies, Letov spent the Second World War forced into the service of Hitler’s Germany. In this period of time, they served as repair depot for Luftwaffe aircraft and production site for military variants of the Junkers Ju 290.

The company briefly returned to making its own aircraft in the late 1940s, the LF-107 Luňák glider being the most significant of the company’s designs in that period.

From the start of the 1950s to the present, the company has focused on building components and structures for a number of other manufacturer’s aircraft.

Since 2000, Letov has been a subsidiary of French based Groupe Latecoere. Today, Letov makes components and structures for civilian aircraft from Airbus, Dassault and Embraer.

First flown in 1948, the Luňák was one of the last complete aircraft that Letov produced before being moved into construction of components for others.

Let’s spend some time with the LF-107 Luňák:

Acrobatics Above All 

Lunňák seen at Brno in 2017.

For a period of approximately ten years between the mid 1940s and mid 1950s, design and production of sailplanes enjoyed some popularity among several Czech aircraft companies. A number of those designs found great success internationally. The most recognised of Czech sailplanes from this period is the Let L-13 Blaník from 1956.

Letov’s LF-107 Luňák, which first flew in 1948, was a sleek, single seat glider of largely plywood construction that was designed as an aerobatics specialist suitable for both solo and formation performances as well as aerobatic training.

Design of the aircraft was started in 1947 by a team overseen by chief engineer, Vladimír Štros. The aircraft was designed with the intent that it could exceed the aerobatic abilities of the German made DFS Habicht sailplane which debuted in 1936 and was well respected in competitive circles.

Because of the Luňák’s projected high performance, Letov was able to engage the interest and support of the Czechoslovak military at a very early design stage. The air force was looking for a high performance sailplane with which they could test the fitness of their fighter pilots in aerobatics.

The prototype showed very good qualities during its maiden flight in June of 1948. Test pilot, Jan Anderle, reported the aircraft and its performance to be flawless during that flight. A second flight was performed the following month in front of delegates from the ministries of defense and transport as well as a number of military and civilian pilots. On that flight, Anderle put the prototype through a series of aerobatic figures that demonstrated well the agility and speed of the aircraft as well as the robustness of the design. Authorisation for series production of the aircraft was given shortly after this second flight.

Even before production began, the Luňák prototype was catching eyes internationally. In 1948 and 1949, it appeared at competitions in Poland and Switzerland and turned many heads with all aspects of its design and flight.

While Letov had envisioned a production run of around 200 of the type, rising Cold War tensions led to only 75 Luňáks being made in total before the company was ordered to cease production and was charged with producing components and structures for other aircraft companies who were producing Soviet designed MiG-15, MiG-19 and MiG-21 fighter aircraft for the Czechoslovak military.

Aside of the baseline LF-107 model for civilian use, a small number with simplifications made to the design were built for the Czechoslovak military and designated VT-7. Additionally, a derivative of the LF-107 known as the XLF-207 Laminar was built to experiment with laminar flow wings and was one of the first sailplanes to be equipped with them.

The Kite Aloft 

Luňák seen at Brno in 2017.

The word, luňák, translates into English as “kite”. Kites are predatory birds known for their mastery of both soaring and agile flight; they are also known for bursts of high speed when diving on prey. It was a very appropriate name for an aerobatics sailplane that had a maximum speed of 300 kilometres per hour.

The aircraft’s agility and speed led it to be nicknamed “Engineless Fighter” and similar by some people.

From the point of view of the experienced pilot, there was a lot to like in the Luňák beyond the aforementioned agility and speed.

The cockpit was spacious and the fighter style bubble canopy that covered it gave the pilot an excellent view all around the aircraft. In the style of fighter aircraft of the day, the canopy opened by sliding backward. This feature allowed the aircraft to be flown with the canopy open if the pilot wished.

The Luňák was known for being very responsive on the controls and , in spite of its aerobatic design, was appreciated for being quite stable and controlable in most aspects of flight.

Owing to its aerobatic optimised features and single seat cockpit, the Luňák was not considered a suitable aircraft for less experienced pilots.

In spite of the small number produced, the Luňák found some popularity outside of its mother country. Small numbers were exported to Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Romania. Outside of former Eastern Bloc countries, examples of the type are known to have flown in America, Germany, Switzerland and the UK.

By the early 1970s, the arrival of more modern and efficient sailplane designs resulted in a majority of Luňáks being placed in storage or being destroyed in one way or another after they were replaced with newer types. During the 1990s, a renewed interest in the type and vintage sailplanes saw some Luňáks restored to airworthy status.

It is perhaps the best testament to the type’s qualities that one of the world’s few remaining Luňáks won the British national aerobatics championships in 1999, 2000 and 2001.

The Luňák Today 

Luňák seen in Brno in 2017.

With a production total of less than one hundred, it should perhaps come as no surprise that there are only a very small handful of Luňáks left in the world regardless of if they are in museums or airworthy.

It would appear, as of early 2018, that the fewer than ten remaining airworthy examples of the type are to be found in the Czech Republic, Germany, Great Britain and Slovakia. It would also appear that very few made it into museums, so your chances of seeing a Luňák in any form could be very slim indeed.

There isn’t much English language information out there about the Luňák. However, these Czech language links responded acceptably to online translator functions and can give you some further reading:

This link to a Swiss page gives some interesting details about similarities between the Luňák and a Swiss glider design of the same period:

This link will take you to a page about the Luňák that made it to America:

A Story Worth Telling

This is just a short post to bring your attention to a news article that recently appeared in the English language section of the Radio Prague news website.

The article contains an interview with Tom Doležal, the founder of the Free Czechoslovak Air Force website and expert on matters of Czech and Slovak participation in the Royal Air Force during WWII.

In the interview, Mr. Doležal recounts how his father and a number of other former Czechoslovak RAF pilots carried out the world’s first triple hijacking in order to defect from post 1948 Communist Czechoslovakia.

The Communist government was very fearful of the former RAF men, as they had been exposed to western influences, and went to great lengths to marginalize them from society and erase them from the history books:

While I have referenced Mr. Doležal’s website before on Pickled Wings, I can’t recommend it enough for the wealth of information it provides on Czechoslovak participation in the RAF during WWII:

Kunovice Air Museum Update

I very recently received an email from the Kunovice Air Museum with some very exciting news to see out the 2017 season and give good reason to eagerly anticipate the start of the 2018 season.

As regular followers of Pickled Wings will know, the museum took on a former Czech air force Tupolev Tu-154 in 2016 for restoration and eventual display. Not only did the museum set a national record for the most successful crowd funding project in the country to date in order to achieve the goal of moving the aircraft by road from Prague to Kunovice, they also received some very generous help from the Kunovice town council.

The help from the town council includes the expansion of the museum land in order to accomodate the Tu-154 in close proximity to the rest of the museum’s collection.

Here, I provide for you an English translation of the content of the email I received from the museum:


The Kunovice town council has prepared and approved the extension of the land of the Kunovice Air Museum.

Dear friends,

We are pleased to inform you and your readers about the fact that the Kunovice town council, headed by Mayor Ivana Majíčková, has prepared and approved the extension of the museum’s land. This will not only save us a lot of work, but it will also allow for a more appropriate exposure of our new eagerly awaited exhibit, the Tupolev TU-154M, and free up space for other exhibits.

Bez názvu

Image: Proposed design of the presumed location of the TU-154M in the extended area of the museum. (image credit: Kunovice Air Museum)

Apart from the extension of the land, the town of Kunovice also offered help with the preparation of the area for the Nagano Express. Thanks to this, the aircraft will have a dignified place in the Kunovice Aircraft Museum.

Museum Head, Martin Hrabec, said:

“This unexpected and generous offer was a very pleasant surprise for our team and we are very happy about it. Immediately we started to prepare everything needed to build a paved spot at a new location so we did not incur a significant time deficit and have been able to prepare a place for the airplane before it starts to freeze. The primary goal is to keep to the planned airplane movement which is scheduled for the beginning of next year, when we assume that the soil will be sufficiently frozen.”

Moving the Tupolev will be followed by the finishing work on the airplane and its surroundings, so that it can be publically unveiled and made available for viewing in the 2018 season.



For all the latest updates of museum activities, you can visit the museum’s web page:

You can also visit their Facebook page:

Book Review: “Tornado F3 in Focus”

Tornado F3 in Focus: A Navigator’s Eye on Britain’s Last Interceptor
By: David Gledhill
Fonthill Media (2015)

“All modern aircraft have four dimensions: span, length, height and politics. TSR2 simply got the first three right.” – Sir Sydney Camm

No truer words can be spoken about modern aircraft development than the above famous quote from the legendary aircraft designer, Sir Sydney Camm, when reflecting on the 1965 cancellation of the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) TSR.2 tactical strike and reconnaissance aircraft program.

Politics will always hold some sway in procuring new military technology of any sort. A shift in power resulting from an election can utterly hamstring a much needed and well progressing project while those who control the flow of money will often get their way at the expense of the needs and safety of those charged with operating the equipment in the field.

Thus began the story of the Panavia Tornado F3…

The Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) program which would eventually lead to the F3 was quite controversial and well under many microscopes before the first prototype flew in 1979. It courted even more criticism when the lacklustre interim Tornado F2 variant entered RAF service in the early-mid 1980s.

From the first prototype flight in 1979 to the final retirement of the F3 by the Royal Saudi Air Force in 2014, the members of the Tornado ADV family would become both maligned and appreciated by various parties.

It was an aircraft that, in spite of its many detractors and early setbacks, would mature into a credible and valuable air defence asset which provided the Royal Air Force with a quarter century of service before they retired it in 2011.

In this book, David Gledhill lays out the Tornado ADV story in the RAF context from start to finish and covers in great detail all of the various road blocks in the aircraft’s development that held it back as well as the various incremental improvements that pushed it forward during its life.

Mr. Gledhill is a uniquely qualified voice to speak on matters of the Tornado ADV variants. He was one of the very first Tornado F2 navigators trained for the aircraft and his subsequent RAF flying career was dedicated to Tornado F3 operations as both an instructor navigator and an operational one.

Prior to his time as a Tornado navigator, he did the same job in the F-4 Phantom. As such, his knowledge and expertise of the air defence arena is extensive and he is well placed to not only compare the various stages of Tornado ADV development, but also to compare the Tornado and the Phantom in the the air defence role in a first hand and meaningful way.

Where this book really shines, in my view, is in Mr. Gledhill’s inside knowledge of the politics and other bureaucracy inside the halls of the Ministry of Defence that so often held the Tornado F3 back but kept the media and most other outsiders quite ignorant of why the aircraft seemed lacking.

The author is able to give us such an insight as he did two non flying tours of duty at the Ministry of Defence and was directly involved with many of the upgrades made to the Tornado F3 during that time. He relates tales of various projects jockeying for funding, his own extensive experience with the aircraft being placed second by those of higher authority who knew far less about the aircraft and perhpas nothing about the needs of the crews operating it.

The sections on procurement are particularly eye-opening and give a look at the intricacies of the development and procurement process of complex military technology that some who are keen to discredit contemporary military projects, such as the Lockheed-Martin F-35, but are dubiously informed about them might do well to read before going on a tirade in cyberspace against them.

The author also describes squadron deployments to the Middle East, the Balkans and the Falkland Islands in good detail.

Along the way, Mr. Gledhill also dispells many of the lingering myths and misconceptions about the Tornado F3 that followed it through its service life.

While there are a few typographical errors peppered through the book, they are not major impediments to undertsanding the text of the book.

If there is a more authoritative and well rounded book on the Tornado F3, I’m not aware of it.

Here is the book’s profile on the publisher’s website:

Buy with confidence.