NATO Days, 2017

September 16 and 17 saw the annual NATO Days public show at Ostrava, in the north east of the Czech Republic.

The weather was largely wet and overcast when I attended on the Saturday. As such, the flying displays were affected adversely. This included the scheduled display by the Saudi Hawks team, who ultimately cancelled their saturday performance due to poor visibility and safety concerns.

As has been the practice of NATO Days for the past few years, a special co-host nation was chosen; Slovakia was that nation this year and they brought a good selection of air and land gear with them.

At that, here’s a sampling of what was on hand at this year’s show:

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This CF-18 Hornet in the static park marked the first time Canada sent an aircraft to the NATO Days event. This Hornet came from 433 Squadron.
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The F-16 is a standard NATO Days attendee. These ones were courtesy of the Netherlands.
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Lithuania brought three aircraft for the statics, including this Eurocopter AS365.
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Among the equipment Slovakia presented at the event was their newest air asset, the Sikorsky UH-60M Blackhawk.
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Parked next to the Blackhawk was the stalwart Mil Mi-17; this one in the colours of the Slovak Government Flying Service.
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Also in the Slovak section of the static park was this Fokker 100.
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This Dornier Do-228NG, equipped for aerial survey and monitoring work, came courtesy of the German navy.
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This was as close as anyone came to seeing the Saudi Hawks team on Saturday.
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An increasingly rare sight in European skies is the Yakovlev Yak-40. The Czech air force has two and they are scheduled to be replaced in the next year or two.
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A NATO Days standard, which was sadly absent at the 2016 edition, was the Slovak air force MiG-29 display. It was great to see it return this year.
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One of my very few presentable flying shots from the day was this Slovak A319 Airbus display.
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Adding a bit of vintage to the show was this restored two seat MiG-15 which flies on the Czech civil register.
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Tupolev Tu-154 “Careless” – Tupolev’s Trijet

Gaps to be Filled 

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This Slovak Government Flying Service Tu-154M was seen over Kunovice, Czech Republic in June of 2017. This was one of its last flights before retirement.

The former Soviet Union had great success in the early years of jet based airliner service with their Tupolev Tu-104. The Tu-104 was the world’s second jet to enter regular airline service after Great Britain’s DeHavilland Comet. While both machines had their share of imperfections associated with being the first of a new breed of aircraft, the Tu-104 had more success than the Comet in providing sustained and dependable service during the 1950s due to the British aircraft being grounded from 1954 to 1958 after a series of accidents. For a period in the late 1950s, the Tu-104 was the only jet airliner in regular scheduled service and was a message, wherever it went, that the west was falling behind in the jetliner stakes.

With the return of the Comet to the skies in 1958 and the arrival of France’s Sud Aviation Caravelle to airline service in 1959, the jetliner race was back on.

By the early 1960s, two new Soviet airliner designs had flown for the first time. The twin jet Tupolev Tu-134 had short haul routes as its target while the four engine Ilyushin Il-62 was designed for the long range intercontinental routes. Both aircraft entered airline service in 1967 and the Tu-154 flew for the first time in 1968.

The Tu-154 was introduced to airline service in 1972, filling the medium range gap between the Tu-134 and Il-62 and becoming a workhorse for Aeroflot and many other carriers in nations which came under Soviet influence in the Cold War period and continued to serve many of them well past the fall of Socialism.

Neither a Copy nor a Competitor 

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Another angle on the Slovak Tu-154M; showing the trijet arrangement, T tail and landing gear pods on the wings that are hallmarks of the design.

As was the western habit in the prevailing “us and them” mindset of the Cold War; there was no shortage of people dismissing the Tu-154 as an “inferior copy” of western trijets such as the Boeing 727 from America and the Hawker Siddeley Trident from Great Britain. Indeed, when the Tu-154 prototype made an appearance at the 1969 Paris Air Salon, western observers were brutally critical of every aspect of it. In the NATO codenaming system for Soviet aircraft, the Tu-154 was dubbed “Careless”.

However, such comparisons were an extreme case of the west grasping at straws to discredit the east. The Tupolev trijet was really in a class by itself and was produced for much longer than either the 727 or Trident.

Beyond having a similar general design, the three aircraft had nothing in common. The American and British trijets had both been in airline service for at least half a decade before the Tu-154 first flew and had been designed specifically to compete in the burgeoning short haul feeder line market that was opening up in the early 1960s. By comparison, the Tu-154 was designed as mid range liner to most immediately satisfy projected requirements of the Soviet national airline, Aeroflot, before anything else.

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The Tu-154 had six wheel main landing gear units to better distribute the aircraft’s weight on improvised and unprepared surfaces.

The Tu-154 was designed and built to rigorous specifications that included the ability to operate from austere or improvised runways in the most remote regions of the former Soviet Union. Even before it first flew, things were being asked of it that had not been asked of jet airliners before. For a jet airliner to operate from a gravel or packed earth strip was unthinkable at the time the Tu-154 was being designed, and yet such abilities were specified for it.

Part of why the Tu-154 had such abilities in its specification was so it could replace the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 turboprop airliners which had been serving those remote areas.

The Tu-154 was built as a trijet for no other reason than that it didn’t need four engines to do what was wanted of it. Aeroflot’s four engine jetliner requirement was well filled by the Ilyushin Il-62.

The Tu-154 also put performance ahead of efficiency. With a top speed of 975 kmh, the Tu-154 was one of the swiftest airliners ever put into regular scheduled service. It also could operate at altitudes above most other civilian air traffic.

Further testament to the Tu-154’s flight performance was the choice to use it as a landing trainer for cosmonauts preparing to crew the failed Soviet space shuttle, the Buran. The Tu-154 was capable of the same steep angle descents that the cosmonauts would face when landing the Buran.

In short, the Tu-154 was a much more specialised aircraft than initial appearances let on and the west simply had nothing that was fully comparable.

Moving the Masses 

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Tu-154 B2 seen preserved at the Aeropark museum in Budapest, Hungary in 2015.

It did not take long for the Tu-154 to find its way into widespread service after its first Aeroflot passenger flight in 1972. The aircraft formed the backbone of not only Aeroflot, but also a number of airline fleets in the Eastern Bloc and in Soviet friendly states.

In a flying career spanning approximately three and half decades, the Tu-154 served the militaries and numerous airlines of no fewer than forty countries.

In airliner form, the Tu-154 cabin could be configured for two class, single class or high density passenger arrangements. The high denisty layout was accomplished by removing the aircraft’s galley.

A number of the aircraft were also converted for air freight duties.

In military circles, the Tu-154 found favour as a VIP transport and many Eastern Bloc leaders used the type as their personal transport.

Even after the fall of Socialism, the Tu-154 remained in regular airline service for some time. The final scheduled Tu-154 flight from Europe was conducted by Belavia in 2015, from Geneva, Switzerland to Minsk, Belarus.

The very last European based Tupolev Tu-154s belonged to the Slovak Government Flying Service and these were retired in summer of 2017.

As of 2017, the only confirmed airline to still be using the Tu-154 for passenger service is North Korea’s Air Koryo.

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The very powerful, but very inefficient, Kuznetsov NK-8 engine which powered early members of the Tu-154 family

Increased availability of more efficient airliners through the 2000s and 2010s and increasingly strict international regulations on exhaust and noise emmissions made Tu-154 operations financially unappealing in many markets and most operators divested themselves of the type in that period.

Later in its life, the aircraft came to world attention in the wake of some very high profile accidents. However, in the bigger picture, for an aircraft of which more than 1,000 were produced and served for more than 30 years, the Tu-154 has an average safety record and is not considered an unsafe aircraft. In fact, a significant number of accidents involving the aircraft were attributable to non-technical factors such as human error, poor weather or runway conditions as well as highjackings. At least five Tu-154s are known to have been shot down.

As airliners go, the Tu-154 is a very solidly built aircraft that has withstood emergency landing situations intact and with no loss of life that would have torn some other airliners apart and most certainly have resulted in fatalities.

The Tu-154 Family 

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Flight deck of the Tu-154 B2 preserved at Aeropark, Budapest.

With a production run spanning from 1968 to 2013 ans 1,026 of the type made, the Tu-154 family consists of four main branches:

Tu-154

The baseline Tu-154 debuted in 1970 and had a capacity for 164 passengers. Production totalled around 40 aircraft.

Tu-154 A

Appearing in 1974, the Tu-154 A improved on the baseline model through increased fuel carriage, more powerful engines, refined flight controls and avionics as well as more flexibility in cabin configurations.

Tu-154 B/B1/B2/S

Produced from 1975, the Tu-154 B and its subvariants featured a new wing of higher strength to replace the wings of earlier variants which were cracking from fatigue. The B series improved the Tu-154 further through an increased maximum take off weight. Several baseline and A models were converted to B standard through wing replacement.

The real drive behind creating the B series of the aircraft was to make it more economical to operate. The Kuznetsov NK-8 engines were very thirsty regardless of the variant being used and the only answer to better ecomonics was to increase passenger load.

The B1 variant was specifically for Aeroflot to increase profits on domestic routes within the Soviet Union. Beyond some minor modification to some systems, it differed little from the B model.

The B2 model was designed to have the high density cabin option via a removable galley. The B2 brought with it additional increases in maximum take off weight. A number of B models were converted to B2 standard. The B2 found favour as a VIP transport as well as an airliner.

The Tu-154 S was a cargo conversion variant based off the B model that featured a strengthened floor and large cargo door on the forward fuselage. A very small number were converted to S standard.

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Former Czech air force Tu-154 M arriving at Kunovice, Czech Republic in 2016 for restoration as a museum exhibit.

Tu-154M

A major change to the Tu-154 came in 1982 with the first flight of the M version.

With the M came new, more efficient engines in the form of the Soloviev D-30. The D-30 gave the aircraft economic performance through lower fuel consumption and increased range that the NK-8 engines had always denied it. The aircraft’s performance was further enhanced by aerodynamic refinements nose to tail. The lower operating costs of the M model gave the Tu-154 a new lease on life with many operators.

The new engines also allowed the Tu-154 to be fitted with hush kits to reduce engine noise. This was something that could not be done with the NK-8 engine and kept the Tu-154 flyable into areas that had increased restrictions on noise emissions. The M models were still allowed to operate, for a while, in places where the B models no longer were permitted.

As with the B model, the M model was liked as a VIP transport and was often referred to as Tu-154 M Lux when configured as such.

The M model formed the basis of some minor versions of the aircraft family that include an electronic intelligence gathering variant, the aforementioned cosmonaut trainer and a one-off variant for exploring alternative fuels.

What Remains and Learning More 

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Former Czech air force Tu-154 M seen partially restored at Kunovice in June of 2017.

As of 2017, less than 50 Tu-154 aircraft are known to still be active on civil or military registers and they are primarily in Russia with a handful scattered between China, Kazakhstan and North Korea. As such, your chances of seeing an active example of the type these days are quite slim and not getting better.

Preserved examples are known to exist in museums in Belarus, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iran, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine.

Unfortunately, it seems for the present that a good deal of English language information to be found online about the Tu-154 is conflicting, biased or focused on accidents that involved the type. Hopefully, that will change one day.

In the meantime, these articles will give you a couple of first hand insights into what it’s like to fly on the Tu-154 as a passenger:

http://www.airlinereporter.com/2014/05/slovak-force-one-my-first-flight-on-a-russian-tu-154/

http://www.airportspotting.com/tupolev-tu154-scheduled-flight-europe-trip-report/

This article was published in conjunction with the delivery of the very last Tu-154, in 2013, and gives a short historical overview of the aircraft:

http://www.airlinereporter.com/2013/02/last-tupolev-tu-154-delivered-today-six-years-after-production-ceases/

 

Let L-200 Morava Revisited

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I’ve recently made text and photo additions to my existing, and quite popular, entry on the Let L-200 Morava.

The additions include two new photographs plus a new section of text focusing on how the aircraft was marketed to the world. It really was a remarkable machine for its class at the time it was new.

I was able to make the additions thanks to Mr. Libor Smolík of Smolik Air in the Czech Republic. After meeting with him at a small event a few months ago and getting into conversation about the Morava, he offered to provide me with a marketing brochure that was used to sell the aircraft on the export market.

I hope you will enjoy the new information and more well rounded feel they give to the entry:

https://pickledwings.wordpress.com/let-l-200-morava-the-kunovice-taxi/

Book Review: “Without Precedent”

Without Precedent
By: Owen Zupp
There and Back Publishing (2016)

Biography is generally not a genre I read with much frequency, but I’m extremely happy that I took the chance to read “Without Precedent” during a recent holiday. Of the biographies I have read, it is by far the most compelling and engaging I’ve read in the context of military or aviation.

Phillip Zupp (1925-1991) had a decades long career in the Australian military and became a very accomplished and respected pilot in both military and civil circles. Phillip’s son, Owen, went to great lengths after his father passed away to compile a detailed biography that not only chronicles the full span of Phillip’s life but also gives the reader a rather intimate view of his personality both in military and civilian life.

Phillip experienced bullying, poverty and privation through much of his childhood and youth. As a result, he developed a very determined and thick-skinned personality and tended to be laconic, pragmatic and stoic in the main. Very few people in his life got a full picture of the man during his lifetime, not even his closest friends and family.

This book is as much a son’s journey to know his father more fully as it is his father’s biography.

Phillip grew up in a farming community and never completed his formal education. He did not have the sort of background one might expect of someone who aspired to a career in aviation, though he was fully captivated by flying from the first time he saw an aircraft and pursued the goal of becoming a pilot with a single minded determination in the face of everything that stood in his way.

He joined the Royal Australian Air Force before the Second World War and began training as a navigator. He took to the military life very well and appreciated the structure and order it gave to his otherwise unpredictable life.

Though he had trained to be a navigator, changing operational priorities during the war resulted in Phillip taking a transfer to the army and training to be a commando. He spent the war fighting the Japanese in the jungles of New Guinea and served in the occupational force in Japan after the war ended. While he was not a particularly philosophical man by nature, standing at ground zero in Hiroshima and taking in the scope of the destruction certainly gave him pause for thought and reflection.

Towards the end of the 1940s, Phillip faced being discharged from the military during post war force reductions. It was in this period, however, that he was able to re-enlist in the RAAF and finally take up training to become the pilot he longed to be. Working his way through DeHavilland Tiger Moth basic trainers and advanced training in Wirraway trainers; Phillip ultimately found himself flying Gloster Meteor fighters in the Korean War.

During that conflict, he distinguished himself as an adept and capable pilot in the ranks of 77 Squadron. During actions in Korea, he was recommended to be awarded a Purple Heart medal by the American forces; it was the first time a member of the Australian military had ever been recommended for that award. However, it took several decades and much bureaucracy before Phillip even learned he had been awarded the medal and for that medal to reach the Zupp family.

After discharge from the RAAF, Phillip found work as an instructor pilot at a flying school near where he and his wife, Edith, had settled and started a family.

Phillip eventually trained on the Lockheed Constellation airliner and took work with the Australian national airline, QANTAS. However, Phillip’s preference for being alone in the cockpit and the strain of him being away for extended periods of time on his family life led him to cut his commercial flying career short.

Eventually, he would find his way into corporate flying and would finish his professional flying career in air ambulance service.

Phillip built up a remarkable pilot’s log through is life and this book gives good insights into many of the types he flew. The sections of the Wirraway trainer and the RAAF Gloster Meteor operations in Korea are particularly enlightening from an Australian aviation standpoint.

In his life, Phillip didn’t talk much about himself and didn’t start opening up to his family about his time in the military until quite late in his life.

It is noted towards the end of the book, that Owen found in his research that many of his father’s closest RAAF friends from Korea had no idea that Phillip had ever been a commando during WWII or had been part of the post war occupying force in Japan.

Following Phillip’s death, Owen Zupp was left with more questions than answers about his beloved father. This book is the result of Owen finding those answers and it’s very satisfying to read as the care Owen put into it is evident from cover to cover.

Phillip Zupp certainly could not have been the easiest man to know, but this book makes it clear that he was certainly worth getting to know if he had let you.

If you like a good biography, I can’t recommend this book highly enough.

If you’re a RAAF enthusiast, your library isn’t complete without this book.

This link will take you to Owen Zupp’s own page and give you access to more reviews of this book:

http://www.owenzupp.com/without-precedent#trade

Book Review: “Carrier Pilot”

Carrier Pilot
By: Norman Hanson
Patrick Stephens Ltd. (1979)
Silvertail Books (2016)

This book is considered by many notable authors and critics to be one of the best pilots’ memoirs of the Second World War.

The author, Norman Hanson, served in the Royal Navy’s Fleet Air Arm (FAA) as a pilot of Vought Corsair fighters in the Pacific Theatre of Operations and this book follows him from recuitment into the service to commanding officer of a fighter squadron.

He gives very good insights into the various aircraft he flew from the basic trainers he experienced in America to the Fairey Fulmar that he trained and qualified for carrier operations in. Ultimately, the Corsair fighter itself gets the spotlight and it’s a very enlightnening look at real life operations with the legendary carrier borne fighter in both shipboard and land based operations.

The book balances levity and poignancy particularly well. Efforts made to break up off duty boredom are interspersed well against sad tales of losing friends in battle or to accidents.

The unforgiving nature of the Corsair fighter is highlighted many times. Very clearly, it was not a machine that tolerated a lot of cockiness or complacency from the pilot.

The book is a very enjoyable read overall; the only thing I can bring against it is that it contains a fair bit of slang that is either period or service specific and some explanatory footnotes would not have gone amiss for those not familiar with it.

I definitely recommend this book for carrier aviation fans, Fleet Air Arm fans and those who like a well written combat memoir.

This link will take you to the book’s page on the Silvertail Books website:

http://www.silvertailbooks.com/portfolio-post/carrier-pilot/

 

Kunovice Military Day, 2017

Yesterday saw me pay my first visit of 2017 to the Kunovice Aviation Museum in the south east of the Czech Republic.

The museum and local flying club organised a special event called Military Day. The day invloved exhibitions of Second World war uniforms and equipment by historical reenactment clubs, tactical demonstrations by the Czech army, rescue and fire fighting demonstrations by airport emergency services, sightdeeing flights by the flying club and the roll out of a newly restored aircraft in the museum’s collection.

It was also a chance to see a lot of locally designed and built aircraft as Kunovice has, for many years, been a significant centre of Czech aircraft production.

The event was much more than the advertising led me to expect and I was astounded by the scale of it and it was a real challenge to choose just 12, that’s my rule for myself when making primarily photographic posts, pictures to give you a taste of the event.

I sincerely hope the museum and flying club will be making this an annual event, it’s worth it!

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The Evektor EV-55 Outback is a locally designed and built twin turboprop design.
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Another local product is the BRM Aero Bristell ultralight. I took a 30 minute sightseeing ride on this very one.
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Flying over the Morava river and Baťa canal, two prominent features of the Slovácko region of which Kunovice is a part.
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The turnaround point of the flight was the Zlín aircraft factory in the small city of Otrokovice. Zlín has been a presence in Czech aviation since the 1930s.
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This Beech Duke from the German register was available for close inspection.
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Not born in Kunovice, though still a proudly Czech product, this Tatra fire engine from the airport fire brigade arrives.
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An Aero C-104, a Czech variation of the German Bucker Bu-131 Jungmann trainer.
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A Zlín 381, a Czech version of the Bucker Bu-181 Bestmann trainer.
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Roll out of the museum’s freshly restored Let/Zlín Z-37 TM for public viewing. The Z-37 TM was an experiment in the mid 1980s to test the suitability of the Z-37 T agricultural plane for military close support missions. The experiments were unsuccessful and the prototype was returned to agricultural service and found its way onto the Hungarian civil register. In recent years, the museum located and recovered the aircraft and brought it home for restoration.
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The Slovak governmental Tupolev Tu-154 did a few low overflights of the museum. This was one of the last chances to see a Slovak Tu-154 in action, after this weekend they will be retired.
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Another local product, this Let L-23 Super Blaník made a few low passes over the exhibition site.
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Looking at the museum and army demonstration area beyond from atop the airport fire brigade’s cherry picker vehicle.